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Wednesday, 25 January 2017 10:21

3-Day TB Academy especially for students, residents, fellows, doctoral students & post-docs (up to 3 years post exam).
A forum for young clinicians & researchers in the field of TB to exchange ideas and to learn from each other under expert guidance & mentorship.





The TBnet Academy 2017 will take place in Yerevan, Armenia.


Please find the application form by clicking on the image below.

Deadline for application is 24th February 2017

The TBNET academy provides an excellent forum for 20 young European clinicians and researchers in the field of tuberculosis to exchange ideas and to learn from each other under expert guidance and mentorship. It is a very good opportunity for upcoming researchers to participate in a pan-European research network, to get to know colleagues in the same field from different parts of Europe and to plan future collaborations.
Everyone who will take part in the TBNET Academy will have an active role. Participants will be selected on basis of their motivation letter, research experience and career plans. They can choose among 5 categories:
1. TB Epidemiology
2. TB diagnostics
3. TB Prevention
4. TB treatment
5. Clinical pearls (case reports)
and will be asked to provide a state-of-the-art lecture on their topic or clinical case report together with colleagues from other countries. The presentations will be prepared under guidance of experienced mentors. Apart from keynote lectures and career development sessions there will be a teaching ward round at the national MDR-TB center and visit to the national TB laboratory.

The TBNET Academy is open for interested medical students who perform research in the area of tuberculosis or NTM diseases . Clinicans and scientists who apply should have had their last academic exam within 3 years of the application. Distributed representation of participants throughout Europe will be ensured. Participation in the TBNET Academy will be funded with travel/accommodation stipends up to the amount of 500 Euros per person. Travel and accommodation will be booked by the TBNET office for those 20 applicants who will be selected.





Friday, 05 May 2017 09:24

Depleting Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the transcription termination factor Rho causes pervasive transcription and rapid death.



Laure Botella, Julien Vaubourgeix, Jonathan Livny & Dirk Schnappinger



Rifampicin, which inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase, provides one of the most effective treatments for tuberculosis. Inhibition of the transcription termination factor Rho is used to treat some bacterial infections, but its importance varies across bacteria. Here we show that Rho of Mycobacterium tuberculosis functions to both define the 3' ends of mRNAs and silence substantial fragments of the genome. Brief inactivation of Rho affects over 500 transcripts enriched for genes of foreign DNA elements and bacterial virulence factors. Prolonged inactivation of Rho causes extensive pervasive transcription, a genome-wide increase in antisense transcripts, and a rapid loss of viability of replicating and non-replicating M. tuberculosis in vitro and during acute and chronic infection in mice. Collectively, these data suggest that inhibition of Rho may provide an alternative strategy to treat tuberculosis with an efficacy similar to inhibition of RNA polymerase.



Nat Commun. 2017 Mar 28;8:14731. doi: 10.1038/ncomms14731.



Appropriate termination of RNA synthesis is a prerequisite for bacterial viability. The RNA/DNA helicase/translocase Rho is the main termination factor for transcription termination, absent from the genome of eukaryotes and can be selectively inhibited by bicyclomycin (Link). In this study Schnappinger and his team used conditional knockdown mutants to show that Rho from MTB (link) is important for silencing gene expression including insertion elements and phages as well as of PE/PPE genes. More importantly they found that Rho depletion led to a widespread increase of antisense transcription leading to bactericidal effects in vitro as well as in vivo effectively eliminating M. tuberculosis during acute and chronic mouse infection. Rho depletion could also eradicate class II persisters. Currently bicyclomycin is not very active and poorly absorbed when given orally, but targeting Rho from MTB for drug development is promising.


Further reads:




Tuesday, 25 April 2017 07:16

SC Elections 2017


Some positions of the SC will be vacant this year. The election will take place during the annual meeting in Milan in September 2017.

Details about the positions will be posted shortly.

The application form will be posted for downlod here shortly.

You can apply for the following positions by sending your CV including a photo, proposal, publication list:


1. Chair (currently: Prof. Graham Bothamley)

2. Diagnostics (currently: Dr. Morten Ruhwald)

3. Clinical Tuberculosis (currently: Prof. Christoph Lange)

4. Microbiology (currently: Prof. Jose Dominguez)

5. Translational Research (currently: Prof. Martina Sester)

6. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (currently: Prof. Dirk Wagner)

7. Secretary (currently: Lorenzo Guglielmetti)

Wednesday, 25 January 2017 08:14



Registration kindly requested by email until February 20th 2017:

Mrs. Cordula Ehlers TBnet office

Research Center Borstel cehlers@fz-borstel.de 




Wednesday, 23 November 2016 10:54

Dear TBnet members,

the TBnet meeting in 2017 will take place in Milan on September 8th - please save the date!


Information will follow.



Thursday, 15 September 2016 07:40

The Tuberculosis Network Clinical Trialsgroup (TBNET), an international consortium of clinicians and scientists, has proposed new treatment outcome definitions for MDR-TB. TBNET documented the management of patients with MDR-TB at 23 different sites across Europe where they found that treatment outcomes according to the definitions proposed by the WHO did not correlate to sustained culture conversion and being free of relapse in the absence of therapy. Applying the novel TBNET MDR-TB outcome criteria “cure” is reached twice as often as compared to the WHO criteria in their study.


The number of patients with MDR-TB has dramatically increased worldwide over the past decade. The largest number of patients who have been identified with MDR-TB lives in the WHO region Europe. Chances for “cure” for these patients were thought to be small. In the latest report of the European Centre for Diseases Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the WHO Regional office for Europe, “treatment success” from MDR-TB was less than 50 %. The definition of “treatment success” by the WHO includes patients who are “cured” (having three negative sputum cultures taken at least 30 days apart during the continuation phase of treatment) but also patients who simply “complete the treatment” without failure. An observational follow-up period, to identify disease recurrence in the absence of therapy is not included in the WHO criteria for MDR-TB treatment outcome presently.


International cohort with 380 patients


As part of the EU Commission funded TB-PANNET project 380 patients with MDR-TB were observed at 23 TBNET centers in countries of high, intermediate and low incidence of TB in Europe over a period of 5 years. Observation started from the time of diagnosis and lasted until one year after the end of the treatment. The researchers found that the WHO criterion for “cure” could not be applied in the majority of patients, simply because most patients who were being treated successfully were not able to produce sputum after 8 months of therapy.


TBNET proposed new definitions for “cure” and “failure” of MDR-TB treatment based on the sputum culture status at 6 month after the initiation of therapy and whether patients were free from disease recurrence one year after the end of therapy. “No-one would call a patient with cancer to be cured at the end of chemotherapy. Patients with MDR-TB also need to be closely monitored after the end of treatment to identify patients who experience disease recurrence”, states a TBNET scientists.


In their study the results for “cure” from MDR-TB correlate very well with the level of drug resistance and the time to culture conversion. The new definitions are also independent of the total duration of treatment and can be applied to the standard 20 months MDR-TB regimen as well as to the 9-12 months shorter course MDR-TB treatment that was recently proposed by the WHO.


Cure-rates from MDR-TB were 61% in this study, compared to only 31% when using the WHO criteria.


Hope, but still a lot to be done


Results from the TBNET study are encouraging. “There is still a lot to do to improve treatment outcomes in MDR-TB as 1/3 of affected patients still cannot be cured in Europe. The prognosis may be worse in other parts of the world. We are optimistic that outcomes can be improved with novel medicines and individually tailored treatment managements, rather than programmatic fixed combinations of drug-regimens and a one-for-all duration of therapy” says a TBNET spokesman.


Guenther G et al. Treatment outcomes in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. Sept 15th 2016


Tuesday, 08 March 2016 14:06



List of TBNET publications





1.    Lange C, Duarte R, Fréchet-Jachym M, Guenther G, Guglielmetti G, Olaru ID, Oliveira O, Rumetshofer R, Veziris N, Frank van Leth Ffor the European MDR-TB database collaboration* (*The European MDR-TB database collaboration members include in alphabetical order of surname: Sofia Alexandru, Neus Altet, Korkut Avsar, Didi Bang, Raisa Barbuta, Graham Bothamley, Ana Ciobanu, Valeriu Crudu, Manfred Danilovits, Martin Dedicoat, Raquel Duarte, Mathilde Fréchet-Jachym, Gina Gualano, Lorenzo Guglielmetti, Gunar Günther, Jan Heyckendorf, Barbara Kalsdorf Heinke Kunst, Christoph Lange, Wiel de Lange, Damien Le Dû, Vaira Leimane, Frank van Leth, Rita Macedo, Cecile Magis-Escurra, Anne-Marie McLaughlin, Inge Muylle, Ioana D Olaru, Olena Oliveira, Veronika Polcová, Emanuele Pontali, Cristina Popa, Jérôme Robert, Rudolf Rumetshofer, Alena Skrahina, Varvara Solodovnikova, Victor Spinu, Simon Tiberi, Nicolas Veziris, Piret Viiklepp). Limited benefit of the new shorter MDR-TB regimen in Europe. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Oct 15;194(8):1029-1031.


2.    Günther G, Lange C, Alexandru S, Altet N, Avsar K, Bang D, Barbuta R, Bothamley G, Ciobanu A, Crudu V, Danilovits M, Dedicoat M, Duarte R, Gualano G, Kunst H, de Lange W, Leimane V, Magis-Escurra C, McLaughlin AM, Muylle I, Polcová V, Popa C, Rudolf Rumetshofer, Skrahina A, Solodovnikova V, Spinu V, Tiberi S, Viiklepp P, van Leth F for the TBNET. Treatment outcomes in Multidrug resistant tuberculosis. N Engl J Med 2016 Sep 15;375(11):1103-5. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1603274.


3.    Bothamley GH, Ehlers C, Salonka I, Skrahina A, Orcau A, Codecasa LR, Ferrarese M, Pesut D, Solovic I, Dudnyk A, Anibarro L, Denkinger C, Guglielmetti L, Muylle I, Confalonieri M. Pregnancy in patients with tuberculosis: a TBNET cross-sectional survey. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016 Oct 12;16(1):304. PubMed PMID: 27729022; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5059923.


4.    Tebruegge M, Buonsenso D, Brinkmann F, Noguera-Julian A, Pavić I, Arbore AS, Vančíková Z, Velizarova S, Welch SB, Ritz N; Paediatric Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (ptbnet).. European shortage of purified protein derivative and its impact on tuberculosis screening practices. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2016 Oct;20(10):1293-1299. PubMed PMID: 27725037.


5.    Ritz N, Brinkmann F, Santiago Garcia B, Tebruegge M, Kampmann B; Paediatric Tuberculosis Network European Trials group (ptbnet).. Tuberculosis in young refugees. Lancet. 2015 Dec 19;386(10012):2475-6. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01241-6. PubMed PMID: 26738710.


6.    Blauenfeldt T, Wagner D, Aabye M, Heyckendorf J, Lange B, Lange C, Ernst M, Ravn P, Duarte R, Morais C, Hoffmann M, Schoch O, Dominguez J, Latorre I, Ruhwald M. Thermostability of IFN-γ and IP-10 release assays for latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A TBNET study. Tuberculosis 2016 May;98:7-12.


7.    Lange C, van Leth F, Sester M, for the TBnet. Viral load and risk of tuberculosis in HIV-infection J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Feb 1;71(2):e51-3. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000834.


8.    Domínguez J, Boettger EC, Cirillo D, Cobelens F, Eisenach KD, Gagneux S, Hillemann D, Horsburgh R, Molina-Moya B, Niemann S, Tortoli E, Whitelaw A, Lange C for the TBNET and RESIST-TB networks. Clinical implications of molecular drug resistance testing for M. tuberculosis: a TBNET/RESIST-TB consensus statement Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2016 Jan;20(1):24-42. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.15.0221.




9. Dierig A, Tebruegge M, Krivec U, Heininger U, Ritz N; Paediatric Tuberculosis  Network European Trials group (ptbnet). Current status of Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) immunisation in Europe - A ptbnet survey and review of current guidelines.  Vaccine. 2015 Sep 11;33(38):4994-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.06.097. Epub 2015 Jul 4. PubMed PMID: 26151543.


10. Ritz N, Brinkmann F, Garcia BS, Tebruegge M, Kampmann B; Paediatric Tuberculosis Network European Trials group (ptbnet). Tuberculosis in young refugees. Lancet. 2015 Dec 19;386(10012):2475-6. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01241-6. Epub 2015 Dec 18. PubMed PMID: 26738710.


11. Sester M, van Crevel R, Leth Fv, Lange C. Numbers needed to treat to prevent tuberculosis. Eur Respir J. 2015 Dec;46(6):1836-8. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01047-2015. PubMed PMID: 26621887.


12. Günther G, van Leth F, Altet N, Dedicoat M, Duarte R, Gualano G, Kunst H, Muylle I, Spinu V, Tiberi S,Viiklepp P,Lange C for the TBNET*. Beyond multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Europe. A TBNET study. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2015 Dec;19(12):1524-7. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.15.0274.


13. Zellweger JP, Sotgiu G, Block M, Dore S, Altet N, Blunschi R, Bogyi M, Bothamley G, Bothe C, Codecasa L, Costa P, Dominguez J, Duarte R, Fløe A, Fresard I, García-García JM, Goletti D, Halm P, Hellwig D, Henninger E, Heykes-Uden H, Horn L, Kruczak K, Latorre I, Pache G, Rath H, Ringshausen FC, Seminario Ruiz A,  Solovic I, de Souza-Galvão ML, Widmer U, Witte P, Lange C; TBNET. Risk Assessment of Tuberculosis in Contacts by Interferon-γ Release Assays (IGRAs). A TBNET Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Mar 12. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25763458.


14. Günther G, van Leth F, Alexandru S, Altet N, Avsar K, Bang D, Barbuta R, Bothamley G, Ciobanu A, Crudu V, Davilovits M, Dedicoat M, Duarte R, Gualano G, Kunst H, de Lange W, Leimane V, Magis-Escurra C, McLaughlin AM, Muylle I, Polcová V, Pontali E, Popa C, Rumetshofer R, Skrahina A, Solodovnikova V, Spinu V, Tiberi S, Viiklepp P, Lange C; TBNET. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Europe, 2010-2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Mar;21(3):409-16. doi: 10.3201/eid2103.141343. PubMed PMID: 25693485; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4344280.

15. de Visser V, Sotgiu G, Lange C, Aabye MG, Bakker M, Bartalesi F, Brat K, Chee C, Dheda K, Dominguez J, Eyuboglu F, Ghanem M; Delia Goletti D; Dilektaşle AG, Guglielmetti L, Koh WJ, Latorre I, Losi M, Polanova M; Pernille Ravn P; Ringshausen FC; Rumetshofer R; de Souza-Galvão ML; Thijsen S; Bothamley G, Bossink A for the TBNET.  False-negative interferon-grelease assay results In Active Tuberculosis (FIAT 500): A TBNET study. Eur Respir J 2015: Jan;45(1):279-83.




16. Günther G, Gomez GB, Lange C, Rupert S, van Leth F; on behalf of the TBNET. Availability, price and affordability of anti-tuberculosis drugs in Europe: A TBNET survey. Eur Respir J. 2014 Nov 13. pii: erj01246-2014. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25395035.


17. Sester M, van Leth F, Bruchfeld J, Bumbacea D, Cirillo DM, Dilektasli AG, Domínguez J, Duarte R, Ernst M, Eyuboglu FO, Gerogianni I, Girardi E, Goletti D,  Janssens JP, Julander I, Lange B, Latorre I, Losi M, Markova R, Matteelli A, Milburn H, Ravn P, Scholman T, Soccal PM, Straub M, Wagner D, Wolf T, Yalcin A, Lange C; TBNET. Risk assessment of tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients. A  TBNET study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Nov 15;190(10):1168-76. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201405-0967OC. PubMed PMID: 25303140.


18. Lange C, Abubakar I, Alffenaar JW, Bothamley G, Caminero JA, Carvalho AC, Chang KC, Codecasa L, Correia A, Crudu V, Davies P, Dedicoat M, Drobniewski F, Duarte R, Ehlers C, Erkens C, Goletti D, Günther G, Ibraim E, Kampmann B, Kuksa L, de Lange W, van Leth F, van Lunzen J, Matteelli A, Menzies D, Monedero I, Richter E, Rüsch-Gerdes S, Sandgren A, Scardigli A, Skrahina A, Tortoli E, Volchenkov G, Wagner D, van der Werf MJ, Williams B, Yew WW, Zellweger JP, Cirillo DM; TBNET. Management of patients with multidrug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in Europe: a TBNET consensus statement. Eur Respir J. 2014 Jul;44(1):23-63. doi:  10.1183/09031936.00188313. Epub 2014 Mar 23. PubMed PMID: 24659544; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4076529.


19. Tebruegge M, Ritz N, Koetz K, Noguera-Julian A, Seddon JA, Welch SB, Tsolia M, Kampmann B. Availability and use of molecular microbiological and immunological tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in europe. PLoS One. 2014 Jun 12;9(6):e99129. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099129. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 24922084; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4055680.


20. Pesut DP, Bursuc BN, Bulajic MV, Solovic I, Kruczak K, Duarte R, Sorete-Arbore A, Raileanu M, Strambu I, Nagorni-Obradovic L, Adzic T, Lazic Z, Zlatev-Ionescu M, Bhagyabati S, Singh II, Srivastava GN. Illness perception in tuberculosis by implementation of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire - a TBNET study. Springerplus. 2014 Nov 8;3:664. doi: 10.1186/2193-1801-3-664. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 25485200; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4233026.





21. Hoefsloot W, van Ingen J, Andrejak C, Angeby K, Bauriaud R, Bemer P, Beylis N, Boeree MJ, Cacho J, Chihota V, Chimara E, Churchyard G, Cias R, Daza R, Daley  CL, Dekhuijzen PN, Domingo D, Drobniewski F, Esteban J, Fauville-Dufaux M, Folkvardsen DB, Gibbons N, Gómez-Mampaso E, Gonzalez R, Hoffmann H, Hsueh PR, Indra A, Jagielski T, Jamieson F, Jankovic M, Jong E, Keane J, Koh WJ, Lange B, Leao S, Macedo R, Mannsåker T, Marras TK, Maugein J, Milburn HJ, Mlinkó T, Morcillo N, Morimoto K, Papaventsis D, Palenque E, Paez-Peña M, Piersimoni C, Polanová M, Rastogi N, Richter E, Ruiz-Serrano MJ, Silva A, da Silva MP, Simsek H, van Soolingen D, Szabó N, Thomson R, Tórtola Fernandez T, Tortoli E, Totten SE, Tyrrell G, Vasankari T, Villar M, Walkiewicz R, Winthrop KL, Wagner D; Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Network European Trials Group. The geographic diversity of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from pulmonary samples: an NTM-NET collaborative study. Eur Respir J. 2013 Dec;42(6):1604-13. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00149212. Epub 2013 Apr 18. PubMed PMID: 23598956.


22. Tebruegge M, Salo E, Ritz N, Kampmann B, On Behalf Of The Paediatric Tuberculosis Network European Trialsgroup Ptbnet. Inclusion of latent tuberculosis infection as a separate entity into the international classification of diseases. Thorax. 2013 Jun;68(6):588. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2012-202824. Epub 2012 Nov 5. PubMed PMID: 23128034.





23. Basu Roy R, Sotgiu G, Altet-Gómez N, Tsolia M, Ruga E, Velizarova S, Kampmann B. Identifying predictors of interferon-γ release assay results in pediatric latent tuberculosis: a protective role of bacillus Calmette-Guerin?: a pTBNET collaborative study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012 Aug 15;186(4):378-84. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201201-0026OC. Epub 2012 Jun 14. PubMed PMID: 22700862; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3443812.


24. Giehl C, Lange C, Duarte R, Bothamley G, Gerlach C, Cirillo DM, Wagner D, Kampmann B, Goletti D, Juers T, Sester M. TBNET - Collaborative research on tuberculosis in Europe. Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp). 2012 Dec;2(4):264-74. doi:  10.1556/EuJMI.2.2012.4.4. Epub 2012 Dec 11. PubMed PMID: 24265908; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3832069.


25. Bumbacea D, Arend SM, Eyuboglu F, Fishman JA, Goletti D, Ison MG, Jones CE, Kampmann B, Kotton CN, Lange C, Ljungman P, Milburn H, Morris MI, Muller E, Muñoz P, Nellore A, Rieder HL, Sester U, Theodoropoulos N, Wagner D, Sester M. The risk of tuberculosis in transplant candidates and recipients: a TBNET consensus statement. Eur Respir J. 2012 Oct;40(4):990-1013. Epub 2012 Apr 10. Review. PubMed PMID: 22496318.





26. Diel R, Goletti D, Ferrara G, Bothamley G, Cirillo D, Kampmann B, Lange C, Losi M, Markova R, Migliori GB, Nienhaus A, Ruhwald M, Wagner D, Zellweger JP, Huitric E, Sandgren A, Manissero D. Interferon-γ release assays for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respir J. 2011 Jan;37(1):88-99. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00115110. Epub 2010 Oct 28. Review. Erratum in: Eur Respir J. 2012 Mar;39(3):793. PubMed PMID: 21030451.


27. Sester M, Sotgiu G, Lange C, Giehl C, Girardi E, Migliori GB, Bossink A, Dheda K, Diel R, Dominguez J, Lipman M, Nemeth J, Ravn P, Winkler S, Huitric E, Sandgren A, Manissero D. Interferon-γ release assays for the diagnosis of active  Eur Respir J. 2011 Jan;37(1):100-11. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00114810. Epub 2010 Sep 16. Review. Erratum in: Eur Respir J. 2012 Mar;39(3):793. PubMed PMID: 20847080.


28. Ruhwald M, Dominguez J, Latorre I, Losi M, Richeldi L, Pasticci MB, Mazzolla R, Goletti D, Butera O, Bruchfeld J, Gaines H, Gerogianni I, Tuuminen T, Ferrara  G, Eugen-Olsen J, Ravn P; TBNET. A multicentre evaluation of the accuracy and performance of IP-10 for the diagnosis of infection with M. tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2011 May;91(3):260-7. doi: 10.1016/j.tube.2011.01.001. Epub 2011 Apr 2. PubMed PMID: 21459676.





29. Erkens CGM, Kamphorst M, Abubakar I, Bothamley GH, Chemtob D, Haas W, Migliori GB, Rieder HL, Zellweger JP, Lange C. Tuberculosis contact investigation in low prevalence countries: a European consensus. Eur Respir J. 2010; 36:925-49


30. Sotgiu G, Centis R, D'ambrosio L, De Lorenzo S, D'arcy Richardson M, Lange C,  Manissero D, Migliori GB; TBNET MDR-TB project. Development of a standardised tool to survey MDR-/XDR-TB case management in Europe. Eur Respir J. 2010 Jul;36(1):208-11. doi:  10.1183/09031936.00186409. PubMed PMID: 20595168.


31. Solovic I, Sester M, Gomez-Reino JJ, Rieder HL, Ehlers S, Milburn HJ, Kampmann B, Hellmich B, Groves R, Schreiber S, Wallis RS, Sotgiu G, Schölvinck EH, Goletti D, Zellweger JP, Diel R, Carmona L, Bartalesi F, Ravn P, Bossink A, Duarte R, Erkens C, Clark J, Migliori GB, Lange C. The risk of tuberculosis related to tumour necrosis factor antagonist therapies: a TBNET consensus statement. Eur Respir J. 2010 Nov;36(5):1185-206. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00028510. Epub 2010 Jun  7. PubMed PMID: 20530046.


32. Bamford AR, Crook AM, Clark JE, Nademi Z, Dixon G, Paton JY, Riddell A, Drobniewski F, Riordan A, Anderson ST, Williams A, Walters S, Kampmann B. Comparison of interferon-gamma release assays and tuberculin skin test in predicting active tuberculosis (TB) in children in the UK: a paediatric TB network study. Arch Dis Child. 2010 Mar;95(3):180-6. doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.169805. Epub 2009 Oct 8. PubMed PMID: 19815937.





33. Migliori GB, D'Arcy Richardson M, Sotgiu G, Lange C. Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in the West. Europe and United States: epidemiology, surveillance, and control. Clin Chest Med. 2009 Dec;30(4):637-65, vii. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2009.08.015. Review. PubMed PMID: 19925959.


34. Migliori GB, Sotgiu G, D'Arcy Richardson M, Centis R, Facchini A, Guenther G, Spanevello A, Lange C; TBNET. MDR-TB and XDR-TB: drug resistance and treatment outcomes. Eur Respir J. 2009 Sep;34(3):778-9. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00059409.  PubMed PMID: 19720816.


35. Sotgiu G, Lange C, Richardson MD, Matteelli A, Centis R, Eker B, Guenther G, Spanevello A, Migliori GB; TBNET. Comment on: Daily 300 mg dose of linezolid for  the treatment of intractable multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009 Oct;64(4):879-83; author reply 883-4.  doi: 10.1093/jac/dkp265. Epub 2009 Aug 3. PubMed PMID: 19651787.


36. Mack U, Migliori GB, Sester M, Rieder HL, Ehlers S, Goletti D, Bossink A, Magdorf K, Hölscher C, Kampmann B, Arend SM, Detjen A, Bothamley G, Zellweger JP, Milburn H, Diel R, Ravn P, Cobelens F, Cardona PJ, Kan B, Solovic I, Duarte R, Cirillo DM; C. Lange; TBNET. LTBI: latent tuberculosis infection or lasting immune responses to M. tuberculosis? A TBNET consensus statement. Eur Respir J. 2009 May;33(5):956-73. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00120908. PubMed PMID: 19407047.


37. Migliori GB, Eker B, Richardson MD, Sotgiu G, Zellweger JP, Skrahina A, Ortmann J, Girardi E, Hoffmann H, Besozzi G, Bevilacqua N, Kirsten D, Centis R, Lange C; TBNET Study Group. A retrospective TBNET assessment of linezolid safety, tolerability and efficacy in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Eur Respir J. 2009 Aug;34(2):387-93. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00009509. Epub 2009 Mar 12. PubMed PMID:  19282348.


38. Sotgiu G, Ferrara G, Matteelli A, Richardson MD, Centis R, Ruesch-Gerdes S, Toungoussova O, Zellweger JP, Spanevello A, Cirillo D, Lange C, Migliori GB. Epidemiology and clinical management of XDR-TB: a systematic review by TBNET. Eur Respir J. 2009 Apr;33(4):871-81. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00168008. Epub 2009 Feb 27. Review. PubMed PMID: 19251779.


39. Jafari C, Thijsen S, Sotgiu G, Goletti D, Domínguez Benítez JA, Losi M, Eberhardt R, Kirsten D, Kalsdorf B, Bossink A, Latorre I, Migliori GB, Strassburg A, Winteroll S, Greinert U, Richeldi L, Ernst M, Lange C; Tuberculosis Network European Trialsgroup. Bronchoalveolar lavage enzyme-linked immunospot for a rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis: a Tuberculosis Network European Trialsgroup study. Am  J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Oct 1;180(7):666-73. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200904-0557OC. Epub 2009 Jul 9. PubMed PMID: 19590020; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2753791.


40. Migliori GB, Sotgiu G, D'Arcy Richardson M, Centis R, Guenther G, Hoffmann H, Cirillo DM, Toungossova O, Kliiman K, De Lorenzo S, Spanevello A, Lange C; Tuberculosis Network European Trialsgroup. Consensus not yet reached on key drugs for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Jul  15;49(2):315-6; author reply 317. doi: 10.1086/600060. PubMed PMID: 19538069.





41. Eker B, Ortmann J, Migliori GB, Sotgiu G, Muetterlein R, Centis R, Hoffmann H, Kirsten D, Schaberg T, Ruesch-Gerdes S, Lange C; German TBNET Group. Multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 Nov;14(11):1700-6. doi: 10.3201/eid1411.080729. PubMed PMID: 18976552;  PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2630755.


42. Goletti D, Carrara S, Butera O, Amicosante M, Ernst M, Sauzullo I, Vullo V, Cirillo D, Borroni E, Markova R, Drenska R, Dominguez J, Latorre I, Angeletti C,  Navarra A, Petrosillo N, Lauria FN, Ippolito G, Migliori GB, Lange C, Girardi E.  Accuracy of immunodiagnostic tests for active tuberculosis using single and combined results: a multicenter TBNET-Study. PLoS One. 2008;3(10):e3417. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003417. Epub 2008 Oct 15. Erratum in: PLoS One. 2009;4(6). doi: 10.1371/annotation/9c073390-ed15-44c9-bb85-b64e094e351a. Stefania, Carrara [corrected to Carrara, Stefania]. PubMed PMID: 18923709; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2561073.


43. Ruhwald M, Bodmer T, Maier C, Jepsen M, Haaland MB, Eugen-Olsen J, Ravn P; TBNET. Evaluating the potential of IP-10 and MCP-2 as biomarkers for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Eur Respir J. 2008 Dec;32(6):1607-15. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00055508. Epub 2008 Aug 6. PubMed PMID: 18684849.


44. Bothamley GH, Ditiu L, Migliori GB, Lange C; TBNET contributors. Active case  finding of tuberculosis in Europe: a Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (TBNET) survey. Eur Respir J. 2008 Oct;32(4):1023-30. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00011708. Epub 2008 Jun 11. PubMed PMID: 18550615.


45. Migliori GB, Lange C, Centis R, Sotgiu G, Mütterlein R, Hoffmann H, Kliiman K, De Iaco G, Lauria FN, Richardson MD, Spanevello A, Cirillo DM; TBNET StudyGroup. Resistance to second-line injectables and treatment outcomes in multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis cases. Eur Respir J. 2008 Jun;31(6):1155-9. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00028708. PubMed PMID: 18515555.


46. Migliori GB, Lange C, Girardi E, Centis R, Besozzi G, Kliiman K, Codecasa LR, Spanevello A, Cirillo DM; SMIRA/TBNET Study Group. Fluoroquinolones: are they essential to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis? Eur Respir J. 2008 Apr;31(4):904-5. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00159807. PubMed PMID: 18378786.


47. Migliori GB, Lange C, Girardi E, Centis R, Besozzi G, Kliiman K, Ortmann J, Matteelli A, Spanevello A, Cirillo DM; SMIRA/TBNET Study Group. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis is worse than multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: different methodology and settings, same results. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Mar 15;46(6):958-9. doi: 10.1086/528875. PubMed PMID: 18288911.





48. Migliori GB, Ortmann J, Girardi E, Besozzi G, Lange C, Cirillo DM, Ferrarese  M, De Iaco G, Gori A, Raviglione MC; SMIRA/TBNET Study Group. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, Italy and Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007 May;13(5):780-2. PubMed PMID: 18044040; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2738462.


49. Losi M, Bossink A, Codecasa L, Jafari C, Ernst M, Thijsen S, Cirillo D, Ferrarese M, Greinert U, Fabbri LM, Richeldi L, Lange C; European Tuberculosis Network TBNET. Use of a T-cell interferon-gamma release assay for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy. Eur Respir J. 2007 Dec;30(6):1173-9. Epub 2007 Aug 22. PubMed PMID: 17715165.


50. Migliori GB, Besozzi G, Girardi E, Kliiman K, Lange C, Toungoussova OS, Ferrara G, Cirillo DM, Gori A, Matteelli A, Spanevello A, Codecasa LR, Raviglione MC; SMIRA/TBNET Study Group. Clinical and operational value of the extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis definition. Eur Respir J. 2007 Oct;30(4):623-6. Epub  2007 Aug 9. PubMed PMID: 17690121.












Tuesday, 08 March 2016 11:01

TBnet #16 A database for paediatric tuberculosis in Europe Principal investigator: Beate Kampmann (UK) This study was facilitated by the award of the TBnet Grant 2010. The project started in October 2010. The data-base will include (1) demographic characteristics (2) information about active TB and Microbiology (3) LTB (4)Follow-up (5) children with TB contact but not treated and (6) adverse events of treatment. 

TBnet #34 / NTM-NET #5 Treatment of M. xenopi infections (CaMoMy Trial) Principal Investigator: Claire Andrejak

The main objective of this study is to determine the 6-months sputum conversion rate with a clarithromycin- or moxifloxacin-containing regimen in patients with a M. xenopi pulmonary infection. This study is originally located and facilitated in France, other European centers are now asked to participate.

TBnet #39 Differentiation of antigen-specific T-cells in pulmonary tuberculosis Principal Investigator: Barbara Kalsdorf (Germany)

This study aims to characterize the immunophenotype and function of peripheral blood and BAL-derived Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis specific T-cells in suspects of tuberculosis to identify whether expansion of antigen-specific T-cells occurs only at a central compartment (lymph nodes) or in addition, at the site of the infection. We will identify the phenotype of unstimulated and antigen-specific T-cells in blood and BAL for the ability to relocate (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD27, CD45RO, CCR7) and to replicate at the site of infection (CD25, IL-2, Ki67). Early apoptosis markers like Annexin V will be used on blood and BAL-cells to investigate whether the local activation of M. tuberculosis-specific CD4 /CD8 T-cells induces protection against cell death in the course of acute pulmonary infection.

TBnet #52 Management of tuberculosis in transplant recipients, Principal Investigator: Martina Sester (Germany) Influence of screening for tuberculosis on tuberculosis incidence after organ transplantation in regions of tuberculosis incidence of <40/100000


INSTRUCTION (version 02.12.2015)

STUDY PROTOCOL (version 02.12.2015)

TBnet FORM (version 02.12.2015)

TBnet #53 TBnet-DM Study. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with Tuberculosis and Diabetes in Europe Principal Investigator: Enrico Girardi (Italy)

This study aims to describe the epidemiology, and clinical presentation of  tuberculosis in patients with diabetes in Europe. Specific objectives are: 1.To determine the prevalence of DM among TB patients  in Europe with special reference to possible differences among different countries and between autochthonous and migrant patients. 2. To analyze epidemiological and demographic variables associated with DM among TB patients. 3. To describe clinical presentation  of TB-DM and diagnosis of DM in TB patients 

Protocol and Appendix can be found here (only for members).


TBnet #54 Performance of a new generation IGRA in immunocompromised individuals, Principal Investigator: Martina Sester (Germany)

Tuesday, 08 March 2016 09:58




TBnet called for a photograph related to TB for a photoexhibition and book.

Submit your images of TB by March 24th 2016 to cehlers@fz-borstel.de.

You can submit up to three pictures.








Submission details

Participation in the TBnet photoproject is free to all (you do not have to be a TBnet member, but you can sign up anyway, membership is free)


Submit up to 3 photos (jpeg, tif, png or similar, >300 dpi preferred), a title and a description (<200 words) related to TB


Photos cannot be submitted previously to a photo contest


Submission deadlinefor photos and accompanying material is March 24th 2016


Photos, title and text should be submitted electronically together with the details of the photographer and a copyright transfer agreement to Cordula Ehlers in the TBnet office at cehlers@fz-borstel.de


Consent forms(if applicable) must be signed by all individuals that can be identified on the photos prior to submission. Consent forms must be kept with the photographer


Photos will be judged by an international jury


The photographer of the best image will be awarded


Members of the TBnet steering committee and office are not eligible for the award










Monday, 11 January 2016 11:14




Our 11th TBnet meeting took place on September 2nd in London, United Kingdom. Thanks a lot to our local host, Graham Bothamley!

Report will follow.


Monday, 05 January 2015 11:33

- closed: evaluation done - 


The winner is: Jorge Mestre from Portugal with this photo:


Polypharmacy on Pulmonary Tuberculosis treatment


If one family consists of 2 adults with Pulmonary Tuberculosis and 3 children with Latent Tuberculosis, then this would result in a mandatory daily dose of 24 tablets, 2 intramuscular injections and 45.5 ml of syrup.

Complying with this is assumed as a major challenge in the treatment of the disease.

Besides the stigma that still brings with it, social isolation that implies obligatory use of a mask to prevent the spread, concerns about 11 and 6 years and 21 months children, plus such immense daily dosages.

The permanent anguish, regarding the children's health, is often the motivation to comply with the treatment. It is desirable, that in the not too distant future, that advances, through research, will concur to minimize the number of medications needed to treat Pulmonary Tuberculosis.




2nd place:

Swarupa Nagavalli (Germany)




Its all in the head!

Cerebral Tuberculosis - One of the rarest forms of TB, it can be a silent killer!

Until the fatal day when the first symptom of massive seizure occured, my condition could have remained undiagnosed.

Normal TB diagnosis involves blood tests, X-Ray/CT/MRI of all vital organs; here is the catch, all organs except the master controller "The Brain"! Cerebral TB is an atypical, irregular form of TB, alarming to most specialists due to its rarity.

Absolutely no classic symptoms, no pre-warning until the disease had spread so far and so wide.

The initial CT scan showed several lesions with massive inflammation, can take several months to cure.

How did the disease spread? Why could it not be diagnosed earlier and curbed?

There are some questions that remains unswered.

The field of medicine requires belief and patience, the past one year has thought me both.



3rd place:

Dmytro Butov (Ukraine)